Rashtriya Swayamsevak Sang

Rashtriya Swayamsevak Sang
RSS was established on September 27, 1925 on Vijayadashmi day, at Nagpur by a few young men.
It was to infuse patriotism in the youth and to instill discipline through physical training and patriotic exhortations.

Dr. Keshav Baliram Hedgewar
He was born on April 1, 1889. From Telangana, Brahmin family in Andhra Pradesh.
His great grandfather was in Nagpur.
Because of early difficulties in the family Keshav was sent to school in Nagpur.
In 1909 he passed matriculation from Poona.
In 1910 he joined national medical college at Calcutta and completed medical course in 1914. Then returned to Nagpur.
He was always a revolutionary.
In the 1920, December Congress session in Nagpur, he and few others pressed for complete independence and cow-protection.
In 1921, August 19 he was in imprisoned for one year on sedition charges.

He came out from the jail on the 12th July 1922. This was the time the World War I (1914- 1918) was over.
The Kilafat movement[1] failed. There were riots on Malabar, etc.

The twin objectives of RSS
  When founded were:
1 Hindus must be united to be able to stand up to Muslims
2 they must be radicalized to hasten the day of British withdrawal from India.

To reach this objectives:
Method: Sunday 5 am
Uniform: white shirt and Knee long Khaki Shorts; Kaki cap with two buttons
Now lathi is introduced
Baudhik: from senior member (nation)
Mode of Income; Bhagwa Dhwaja, Gurudakshina (First 1928).

The first officers training camp was organized in 1929.
Shakhas began to grow in size and in number. 
Hedgewar emphasized the importance of games, drill and parade. Physical discipline is an essential base for overall discipline.

 Daily Program:
Swayamsevakes  in a given area coming together at the appointed time for one hour.
Mukhya Shikshak (chief instructor) whistle- fall in line.
The Bhagwa Flag was hoisted and saluted .
There used to be drill, lathi play and games.
At the end they sit in circle- check absent- introduce new members- next day plans- one or two songs.
At the end –fall in line- prayer- flag salute.

It is believed that  the samskaras would mould the Swayamsevak into a nationalist activist.

Until 1930 (satyagraha and Jail0 Hedgewar’s mud house was all the office.

RSS was banned by the government when 2nd world war broke because of its military looking outfits.

In 1930  during salt satyagraha he went Jungle satyagraha[2] (Yotmal). He was sentenced for nine months.

Hedgewar  wanted Dhawa flag as the national flag.
He died June 21, 1940 at 9.27. a.m.
The strength of RSS ideology and efficacy of the methodology carried RSS further to new heights.

Madhav Sadashiv Golwalkar [Shri Guruji] (Sarsanghchalak)

Was born on february 18, 1906 in Nagpur.
Passed matriculation in 1922, then joined college.
1924 joined for M.Sc in zoology
He taught zoology
In 1931 he was initiated into RSS
For a period he was initiated to Ashramlife.
He also studied law.

 He became the leader in 1940. The RSS spread fast.
One of the reasons was to the reaction to the demand for partition.
Another is to try to unite the Hindus and nationalism.
The life and sacrifice of pracharakas 9simple) was another reason.
[pracharak- sanghachalake- sarsanghachalak.]

In 1939 he wrote “We: our nationhood defined) [within three days].
While ailing Hedgewar was confident that Golwalkar  would leas RSS
Golwalkar did not like India being called as sub continent because it was the aim of partisan.
He proved India is Rashtra [nation]
He thought that a proper history of India bad not yet been written
He opposed calling Hindu period, Muslim period British period. For his it should be people.

In 1947 Like Gandhi, RSS did not celebrate Independence because of partition and blood-shed.
When congress came to power it accused RSS of communalism, fascism, etc. at the same time congress was silent about Muslim League, Muslim National Guard, etc.

RSS was banned when Gandhi was assassinated.
Guruji was also arrested
In July 1949 the ban was lifted.

January 26, 1950 on Republic day Golwalkar asked the people to rejoice.
He died June 5, 1973.

His important contributions were cultural nationalism and his books ‘ we our nationhood defined and Bunch of thought.

He became Sar-Sangha –chalak after Guruji.
RSS was banned during emergency by Indra.

After emergency, when ban was lifted, RSS projected itself as a cultural organization.

RSS was never, anti-Muslim but against those who opposed the unity and integrity of India.
He claimed that the Hindus are the most secular.

RSS and Politics
Nehru’s congress was in sulk. The socialists were against RSS. CPI was out of question for the RSS. The Hindu Maha Saba was more dead than alive.

Dr. Syama Prasad Mookerji, formerly of the Hindu Maha Saba, had quit Nehru’s cabinet on the issue of betrayal of east Bengal Hindus.
He was also thinking of launching a new party.

The above two thoughts resulted in the birth of Bharatiya Jana Sangha.
Mookerji was the president. Dr. Bhai Mahavir was General Secretary.

RSS and Janata:
May 1, 1977 Jan Sangh and other parties merged with Janata Party ( in the context of emergency).
In the subsequent election Janata party lost.

In 1980, Jana Sangh left Janata party and formed the BJP.

 Works of RSS:
During the partition it set up refugee camps.
Engaged with draught and flood relief works.

For the students it has Akhil Bharatiya Vidyarthi Parishad.

RSS wante dindia be renamed as Bharat
Hindi should be the state language.
Vande Mataram should become National anthom.

Its union is called Bharatiya Mazdoor Sangha

RSS claims that cast is not relevant today.

Important book: The RSS story by K.R. Malkani, Impex India, New Delhi, 1980.

 1948 Gandhi was assassinated
1975 emergency
1992 Demolition of the Mosque

Hindu Mahasabha:
1970s, Hindu Zamindars opposed ‘single antion’.
Dayananda Saraswati and Pandit Lekh Ram said Muslims be expelled from India and converted to Aryanism.
The single nation only to appease the Muslims.
First they started Punjab Hindu Mahasaba. Later Hindu Maha sabha, RSS and Muslim League.
From 1923 Savarkat guided HMS
Savarkar’s work: “Hindutva: who is Hindu, 1923.

Vishva Hindu Parishad:
To consolidate  and strengthen Hindu society
NRIs and Sadhus.
NRIs fund.

Bajrang Dal: son of RSS. Militant .
Specializing in anti-minority onslaught.

Who is the present RSS head? It is  Mohan Bhagwat.

RSS leaders: List of Sarsanghchalaks of the Rashtriya Swayamsevak Sangh
K. B. Hedgewar (1925–1930 and 1931–1940)
Laxman Vasudev Paranjpe (1930–1931)
M. S. Golwalkar (1940–1973)
Madhukar Dattatraya Deoras (1973–1994)
Rajendra Singh (1994–2000)
K. S. Sudarshan (2000–2009)
Mohan Bhagwat (2009–present)

[1] KM (1919-1924) was an agitation by Indian Muslims  allied with Indian Nationalism in the years following world war I. Its purpose was to pressure the British government to preserve the authority of the Ottoman Sultan as Caliph of Islam following the breakup f the Ottoman Empire at the end of the war.
[2] Against British Forest policies.


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