Sir Muhammad Iqbal
Between 1876 and 1938, born in Kashmir (Sialkot).
Iqbal was a poet-philosopher.
For him there was interaction of political nationalism with religious nationalism in Islam.
It was exemplified in the life and thought of iqbal.
He is considered as the ‘spiritual founder of Pakistan’.
His poems (next to Koran) influenced the intelligentsia of Pakistan.
His poems kindled the Muslims the value of Islam.
He was not interested in politics.
He had deep feeling for the unity of the Islamic world.
He had great concern for the future of Muslims in India.
He wrote in Urdu, Persian and English
His six lectures delivered (between 1928 and 1929) in India and elsewhere, titled the reconstruction of religious thought in Islam, created greatest impact.
Nietzsche’s superman was a source of his poetic inspiration.
Iqbal was against undisciplined individualism (western capitalism)
He was against nationalism and preferred religious nationalism.
According to Islam:
Man is the vice-regent of God on earth.
World salvation is possible only by coming closer to quranic teaching.
He wanted Islamic unity and solidarity- universal Muslim brotherhood.
For him territorial nationalism is root of all social evils
His superman is the one who follows the commandment of one supreme power.
Democracy was abhorrent to him.
The keynote of his philosophy is the development of personality, which he asserts can best be realized by ‘going back to the quran’.
He denounced inactivity and aloofness from the world of the Sufi saints and mystics
His ideal man will not be absorbed in God, but absorb the qualities of God. Overcomes the world. And save mankind.
Iqbal was dynamism’s chief spokesman.
He said a dynamic infidel is more righteous than a passive Muslim.
He called for social and moral reconstruction.