Freedom of Religion and Peace Building


Rev. Dr. Selvam Robertson

Freedom of Religion and Peace Building

1 Introduction
It is attempted in this paper to suggest that freedom of religion is a constitutional privilege of all the citizens of India besides it being one of the basic human rights and flawless practice of freedom of religion is an imperative to any peace initiative. The discussion will start considering the constitutional and human rights basis for freedom of religion, which is essential to peace initiatives and explain the possible role religion can play in peace building. Before doing so a glimpse at a few relevant constituents of freedom of religion and peace are graphically highlighted.
Freedom of religion implies one’s freedom to freely choose or abandon his or her choice of religion subject to the constitutional and legal provisions of her/his State. Any discussion on the freedom of religion in India is grounded on the premise that every individual has the freedom to convert to any religion but no one has the right to convert others. What is asked in this discussion is freedom of religion which leads to peace and harmonious living and not freedom to convert others.
Among the many meanings of the word peace, the following are worth remembering from the point of this paper. Peace is the state prevailing during the absence of hostilities; a treaty or an agreement to end hostilities; harmonious relations or a state of mutual harmony between people or groups; the normal freedom from civil commotion and violence of a community or cessation of or freedom from any strife or dissension; the general security of public places or public security and order. Peace also represents a larger concept wherein there are healthy or newly-healed interpersonal or international relationships, safety in matters of social or economic welfare, the acknowledgment of equality and fairness in political relationships and, in world matters.  Reflection on the nature of peace is also bound up with considerations of potential causes for its absence: insecurity, social injustice, economic inequality, political and religious radicalism, and acute nationalism.

1 Indian Constitution and Freedom of Religion
The starting point for discussion on freedom of religion and peace building is the constitution of India and from here we must reach out together to higher grounds where freedom of conscience and sensitive tolerance make for an equal and open dialogue.[1]
Indian constitution unambiguously guarantees freedom of religion to all the citizens of India and the constitution is supreme in India. It is also significant that the Indian constitution is most comprehensive, well researched, and uniquely balances unity in diversity. It has also perceived the possible conflicts between the religious majority and minorities.
The framers of the Indian constitution have taken freedom of religion as an inescapable component of the Indian constitution. The inculcation of freedom of religion in the Indian constitution is spontaneous. The untainted vision of the founders of the Indian constitution had been to provide justice to all the citizens, equality of people before law, freedom of thought and religion, and protection to the minorities.

1.1 Preamble
Although the preamble of the Indian constitution is nonjusticeable, it guides the rest of the constitution. It directs the interpretation of the constitution. The preamble guarantees to the citizens of India, particularly religious minorities, justice, liberty, equality and fraternity. This guarantee is further strengthened by the incorporation of the principles of secularism and democracy in the preamble. No doubt the constitutional guarantee is often challenged and distorted. Nevertheless the inherent pluralistic principles of the constitution always protect the vulnerable as situation warrants. Hence to discuss freedom of religion we need to mention the principles of Secularism and democracy.

1.1.1 Secularism
The inclusion of the word Secular in the preamble has clarified and empowered the neutrality of the State on religious matters. The state does not interfere in religious matters in a secular state. Although the word secular is not defined in the constitution its implications are vivid in some of the judgments. Accordingly, the state shall be neutral in the matters of religion and religion should not be used for political ends. Secularism gains unequivocal acceptance as earnest religious bodies are realizing the possibility of living together with other religious communities rather than hating the other.  Even after knowing that India needs secularism, people who do not subscribe to the secular values of the Indian constitution search for flimsy and unrealistic reasons to go against it.
For example, anti-secular advocates blame Nehru for introducing secularism in the Indian constitution. For them, otherwise India would have accepted a majority religion as the state religion. They also make a distinction between Indian secularism and western secularism and argue that western secularism is not relevant to India. To their perception, the efforts of all those who are asking for or adhering to secular principles are pseudo secularists. Blaming and trying to eliminate the principle of an universally accepted secular principle, they come up with positive secularism which means the religious minorities should subject themselves to the designs of the religious majority and  the religion of the majority assumes first place and others second.
While erroneous interpretations are a challenge, it cannot be undermined that the essential basis of a modern secular state is institutional separation of state and religion. Politicization of religion is a major threat to secularism. Another challenge is politico-religious communalism which is the present form of religious influence on political matters. Accepting the reality of plurality and upholding secularistic principles in order to work for peace is stated as “Religious tolerance is best supported by a social pluralism and secularism, which opens spaces for diverse religious traditions in society.”[2] 

 1.1.2 Democracy
Democracy is closely connected with secular state and hence to freedom of religion.  Only a democratic form of government can assure freedom of religion to all its citizens based on the democratic principles of equality and justice. Equal respect for other view is one of the crucial principles of freedom of religion and democracy. The democratic value loaded in the Indian constitution is another proof of constitutional guarantee for freedom of religion. When freedom of religion is uninterruptedly realized its consequential peace is possible only through democratic acceptance of each other.
It is said “Today if Christianity, or for that matter any religion, had to fulfill its mission there should be a paradigm shift. One of the important values that religions will have to promote is democracy or a reverential attitude for others.”[3]

2 Citizenship
Indian constitution is pregnant with the potentials for freedom of religion and peace building. This is reflected in the articles on citizenship because the constitution does not provide for class or grade of citizenship in India. The basis of citizenship in our country is not religion but residence in the territory known as India. But this rudimentary fact is often undermined. People who do not have faith in secularism and democratic principle describe the citizenship of minorities as secondary which is unconstitutional, against freedom of religion and opposed to any form of peace initiatives, on the basis of equality and justice for all.  More dangerous than this is the altercation that those who do not prescribe to the majority religious persuasions are secondary citizens and need to leave the country.
            Whereas the constitution wants peaceful coexistence on the basis of equality and justice, people who desire to perpetuate inequality and injustice on the basis of majority minority polemic are threat to freedom of religion and establishment of peace. 

3 Fundamental rights
The other provision of the constitution which guarantees freedom of religion which is essential for peace building is the fundamental rights found in part III of the Indian constitution. These rights prevent any form of discrimination, particularly on the basis of religion. The constitution is vocal in matters that are infringing peace.
The fundamental rights authentically and firmly enable people to ask for and stand by their, choice of religion. Article fifteen prohibits discrimination on the basis of religion, race, caste, sex or place of birth. Article sixteen guarantees equality to all in terms of opportunity (employment), irrespective of religious affiliation. Article nineteen protects freedom of speech and expression, besides many other individual rights. Article twenty one protects the life and personal liberty of all citizens.
Article twenty five confers freedom of conscience and free profession, practice and propagation of religion. This discussion is of the view that article 25 of the Indian constitution does not guarantee the right to convert another person although it is often claimed that the said article include such a provision. In other words article 25 guarantees freedom of religion and freedom of individuals to convert to any religious/ideological persuasions; and not the freedom to convert others. Some often see conversion as a means to liberation. It is acceptable as far as the individuals prefer to do so. Contrary to the freedom of religion enshrined in the Indian constitution, Christian Dalits are denied their rights and privileges on the basis of religion, particularly new religion which they accepted.
Article twenty six guarantees freedom to manage religious affairs. Article twenty seven prohibits payment of taxes for promotion of any particular religion. It implies public funds shall not be used for the promotion of any specific religion. Article twenty eight is about freedom to attend to religious instruction or religious worship in certain educational institutions. Article twenty nine protects minorities’ culture and their admission into state maintained educational institutions. Article thirty confers on the minorities the right to establish and administer educational institutions.
The contention that freedom of religion is one of the basic prerequisites for peace building includes the responsibility that the minorities are sensitive to the sentiments of others.
While the fundamental rights are misinterpreted, for instance, the word propagation includes the right to convert others or when fundamental rights are interpreted as undue advantage to specific groups, freedom of religion and its resultant peace initiatives are challenged.

4 Directive Principles
It is a known fact that inequality and injustice are responsible for the prevalence of opposite of peace. An awkward manifestation of injustice and inequality is the form of denial of freedom of religion which pervasively works against peace. Thus from the perspective of peace and freedom of religion the idea of equality of citizens is implicit in the directive principles (Part IV A) of the Indian constitution. It is worth realizing the fact that the directive principles are guidelines to the states to ensure the welfare of citizens based on justice and equality in social, political and economic life. Although nonjusticeable, the directive principles are there to guide the states to frame policies in consideration with equality and justice. When the states fail to do so and opt for communal strategy inequality and injustice will prevail and freedom of religion and peace initiatives will be relegated to back seat.

5 Fundamental Duties
Another provision of the Indian constitution which vouchsafes for equality, justice, peace and harmony is the fundamental duties. They aim to promote harmony and the spirit of common brotherhood amongst all the people of India transcending religious, linguistic and regional or sectional diversities. Article 51-A casts duty on every citizen to promote communal harmony and the spirit of brotherhood among all people of the country. The main thrust of the fundamental duties is preservation and strengthening of harmonious living in India. In other words peaceful coexistence based on the promotion of communal harmony is the overflowing implications of fundamental duties.
            The assumption freedom of religion is intrinsic to peace building without discriminations, inequality and injustice is the major theme emerging from the constitutional provisions related to freedom of religion and peace building.  The obvious inference is that if peace is at stake it is not the problem with the constitution but with people who oppose peace and promote inequality, injustice and hatred among people of different persuasions, religious or otherwise. It is our dharma to facilitate environment conducive to uphold constitutional rights so that peace may be envisaged.

6 Human rights
From the constitution we need to move towards civil society[4] where freedom of conscience and sensitive tolerance make for an equal and open dialogue. It can play active role in considering freedom of religion as a human rights issue.
Freedom of religion which is one of the prerequisites for peace is a basic human rights according to the universal declaration of human rights. It is note worthy that Indian constitution was influenced by human rights concerns. The universal declaration of human rights emphasizes the importance of freedom of religion especially to the minority communities in the world. Denial of freedom of religion amounts to denial of basic human rights. It is very important to underline the fact that religious rights are the means to realize other rights of the minority groups. Hence the issue of freedom of religion is closely connected with human rights. If we respect fundamental rights we regard human rights as well. The point of caution is that in the UN’s declaration of human rights “religious freedom now emphasized the right to change or maintain one’s faith, not the right to convert or proselytize other.”[5]
Denial of freedom of religion emerges only when the majority communities are unwilling to recognize equality and justice to the entire fabric of society. This causes peace-less situation. And hence any consideration for peace initiative need to underline the fact that freedom of religion in India is not only a constitutional provision it is also a universal human right essential for peace and other freedoms. Therefore, “To maintain peace and harmony, the State must act strongly and decisively against all who break the law.”[6]

7 Challenges to Freedom of Religion
7.1 Non-acceptance of Plurality
Unfortunately communal and fundamental organizations and political outfits utilize the religious sentiments of the people to gain political mileage and challenge the rights of religious minority communities in terms of freedom of religion, which in turn makes peace a remote reality. For example the Hindutva ideology is a major threat to freedom of religion and peace.
The problem with this ideology is rather than promoting Hindu religious values it uses Hinduism as a vehicle to forcefully infiltrate Hindutva Ideology. The ideology lacks acceptance as it harps on age old customs and practices and attempts to rationalize them. As inequality and injustice are main evils working behind the disturbance of peace, principles that promote inequality and injustice- caste, poverty should not be rationalized and justified.
            In a plural and secular state exclusive interpretation of the aspects of culture, nationalism etc is threat to harmony and peace. In this connection
Nationalisms- cultural, religious, linguistic, caste, majority and Hindu are alleged to be fabricated to impoverish freedom of religion offered to the minorities.
Majority complex and non acceptance of plurality are behind all the communal disturbance is vivid in India. Ravi Tiwari writs “The fact of plurality of religion, in which Hinduism is merely one among many, has been very uncomfortable to the propounders of neo-Hindu ideologues.”[7] Paradoxically they also fear that they might lose number if freedom of religion and peace prevail. Hence “It (Hinduism) feels threatened and in turn, poses the same to the very existence of the followers of other religions, a process we are now experiencing in India.”[8]
Another unfounded fear is that the minorities will form separate nation within India. Added to this is the perception that the reservation given to the minorities is a political conspiracy.
Attempt to cloth re-conversion with nationalism is another dangerous threat to freedom of religion and peace. Jesus said “Woe to you scribes and Pharisees, hypocrites! For you traverse the sea and land to make a single proselyte, and when he becomes a proselyte, you make him twice as much a child of hell as yourselves (M 23:15 RSV).”
The religious minority community is also often accused of disrespecting Hindu religion, culture, nation, religious heroes, etc. This in fact is nurturing of hatred between minority and majority communities, which is detrimental to any peace initiative.
Another pretentious effort to curb freedom of religion and endanger peaceful coexistence is the so called freedom of religion bills. Although the title is freedom of religion the purpose is to thwart religious freedom and peaceful coexistence.
The present role of religion in politics is disturbing. It does not directly involve in politics but non religious people use it for certain advantages. It is risky as it camouflages the uncritical mass and sentimentally manipulates people.

7.2 Inequality and Injustice
It has already been repeatedly maintained that inequality and injustice prevent peace. Varghese Manimala points “The imbalance- imbalance of economy, imbalance of development appalling poverty in the midst of affluence, power concentration in the hands of a few, etc. – that we find in the world of today is hardly helpful for the building up of peace.”[9]
Elements disturbing the possibility of peace are also thread to progress. It is said “The key for progress is fairness in world affairs, the development of a new world vision concerned with the have-nots, and improved knowledge of different cultures and religions.”[10] It is further emphasized that, “…the current world disorder results in part from ignorance about civilizations-unawareness or selective memory of the past and lack of perspective for the future- and in part from the economic misery and political injustices experienced by the have-nots, which represent some 80 percent of the world’s population all across the globe and in different civilizations. These are the barriers for achieving the advanced state of world order, and if we can overcome them, we will reach the optimum- a dialogue of civilizations.”[11]
Another aspect of peace highlighted in the graphic explanation of peace is social security. That is “If we believe that the world is becoming a village because of information technology, then in that village we must provide social security for the less privileged, or it may promote a revolution.”[12]
One single threat that is core to the non availability of peace is poverty resulting from inequality and injustice. It is emphatically stated that “Poverty and hopelessness are sources for terrorism and disruption of world order. Better communication and partnerships will end the divide between “us” and “them.”[13] Felix Wilfred remarks “Today, the threat to peace is caused not by terrorism and organized crimes alone. The pervasive threat to peace is caused by poverty.”[14]
In the context of Kandamal it is said “Without justice and fairness, we cannot have peace and reconciliation.”[15] Swami Agnivesh points “Peace without justice will be simply a euphemism for reinforcing the social and economic status quo.”[16]

8 Religion and Peace Building/Initiatives
As the constitutional provisions and human rights concerning freedom of religion are challenged due to intolerance, inequality and injustice for the sake of gaining political mileage, religions need to function dynamically in order to establish peace. Needless to say that religions to function freely and dynamically freedom of religion is mandatory. Real religious freedom facilitates mutual respect and cooperation among religious communities in order to establish peace. Freedom of religion for peace initiative also implies harmonious living with other communities and respecting the other.

8.1 Living Together
Paul F. Knitter writes “It is said that in our present age, religious people have to be religious interreligiously. To walk one’s faith-path, one needs to be walking with others from different paths.”[17] Raimon Panikkar suggests “Religion is “orthopraxis” and it cannot be shelved to some corners of life and to a few hours of practice; it has to permeate the whole life. As religious pluralism is a gift and a challenge the religions need to take it up with earnestness not by its denial but by learning to live with it, and …find ways and means for mutual fecundation and fulfillment.”[18]   Such a benevolent notion emerges when one is deeply committed to build peace from the perspective of religions. A deep involvement for the cause of peace calls for change in our perceptions. Paul F. Knitter affirms, “Study, prayer, interreligious dialogue, and action to promote justice, peace, liberation, and the integrity of creation have changed me.”[19] He also maintains “A new way of understanding other religions implies a new way of understanding Christianity.”[20] It is further reiterated “Freedom of conscience demands that boundaries be kept porous, as indeed most borders will be in a globalizing world.”[21]

8.2 Pluralist Perspective
While seeking harmonious living and mutual respect for others are essential constituents of peace a pluralist perspective also will be helpful. It is clearly stated “Religious pluralism is the proper attitude that promotes religious freedom and freedom of religions, it encourages respect for the free expression of one’s religious beliefs and respect for the right of each person to associate with others and to organize with them for religious purpose.”[22]
A pluralist perspective also helps overcoming constrains within one’s own tradition. For example “Not only is the freedom to follow one’s religious law important, equally important is the freedom to transcend those laws. In this way, the understanding of religious enlightenment is ultimately supportive of the understanding of religious freedom as pluralism.”[23]

8.3 Interior of Religion (Mystery)
The principle of pluralist perspective can be substantial if the approach to the ultimate is pursued with humility because of its unfathomable and infinite greatness.   In the words of Paul Tillich “The way is to penetrate into the depth of one’s own religion, in devotion, thought and action. In the depth of every living religion there is a point at which the religion itself loses its importance, and that to which it points breaks through its particularity, elevating it to spiritual freedom and with it to a vision of the spiritual presence in other expressions of the ultimate meaning of man’s existence.”[24] It is also true that “There needs to be a true transcendence of religion, the ability to go beyond one’s religion and reach out to others in an active pro-existence and only then we can be called religious in the true sense of the term, otherwise we tend to be fundamentalists.”[25]
In this context our understanding of the ultimate may need reconsideration because “Reality is intrinsically complex, rich, intricate, mysterious.”[26] In the words of John Hick “I suggest that the best religious account we can give of the global situation is that of a single ineffable Ultimate Reality whose universal presence is being differently conceived and experienced and responded to within the different human religious traditions.”[27]
The mystical/ultimate/reality beyond the temporal expressions can be a base for working together for peace. It does not mean that there shall be only one single religion.
It is not just enough to follow pluralism and accept limitation before the beyond, in order to contribute to peace religions need to co-operate and support each other. Raimon Panikkar suggests “The idea of a universal religion appears not to be feasible, and in the given situation religions need to acknowledge one another as co-travellers towards the Absolute offering mutual support and enrichment.”[28]

8.4 Dialogue
To live together we need to follow the principle of pluralism which in turn leads to a mystical beyond which could accommodate most of the religio- ideological traditions. This recognition calls for a dialogical living and working among the many faith traditions. In the words of Raimon Panikkar, “Truth although one is multifaceted and we can only have a glimpse of some of the aspects of the truth, as the world famous story of the blind men and the elephant indicates. We are conditioned by our perspectives, attitudes and culture; and what is needed is that we accept these limitations and cooperate with others in the search for Reality.”[29] A sincere dialogical initiative can bring about peace. John Hick writes “Dialogue between the faiths must continue on an ever-increasing scale. But the only stable and enduring basis for peace will come about when dialogue leads to a mutual acceptance of the religions as different but equally valid relationships to the Ultimate Reality.”[30] Sincerity in dialogue is imperative for positive result. In the words of Ravi Tiwari “No experience of dialogue is worthy if it is conducted, or engaged in, without sincerity and integrity of purpose.”[31] The urgency of peace is emphatically stated as “People of various religious affiliations have to join hands even if their leaders fail to support them in the peace building effort; otherwise the future of the world is in great danger.”[32]

8.5 Human Rights
Freedom of religion is a human rights issue and when it is treated as a human right issue the possibility of working towards peace will be easier for the simple reason that “Human rights and religion are interrelated in connection with the freedom of religion.”[33]  Felix Wilfred suggests the following steps: “Religion can play a significant role by involving itself in the dynamics of peace. First of all, no social harmony is possible without recognition of the dignity and rights of people. By defending human rights Christianity will effectively champion the cause of peace in the Asian societies. Secondly, Christianity could become an active force in developing the values and attitudes which the creation of peace requires. Thirdly, the contribution Christianity could make is to instill the spirit of dialogue as an indispensable and effective method for the promotion of peace. The contribution at these levels will bring Christianity into dialogue and cooperation with other religious traditions of Asia.”[34]
Peace initiatives are a very necessary contribution religions can make apart from their regular functions. The necessity of peace building is indicated as “Just as protection of human rights should be a treat concern of the religions so also today’s world torn asunder by wars and conflicts calls for a big and urgent task of peace building.”[35] While calling attention to consider freedom of religion as a human rights concern “One important factor that has to be recognized by all is the basic freedom of every human being and this includes also the freedom of religion. This is a freedom that is granted by all civilized nations of the world, and especially those nations where democracy is the form of government. While we assert for ourselves a freedom to embrace the religion which we believe to be of divine origin, we cannot deny an equal freedom to those whose minds have not yet yielded to the evidence which has convinced us.”[36]

8.6 Humanness
It is again crucial from the point of religious contribution to peace that one has to understand the commonality of human race that is behind all the differences. This fact is clearly stated as “In spite of all constraints and complexities it must be possible for people of goodwill to come together on the common ground of our basic humanity, protected by a regime of human rights and affirmed in a commitment to fundamental duties.”[37] To move further “Freedom of religion is clearly one of the most basic rights of human beings, for it is rooted in the nature of what they are. It is, perhaps, for this reason that the challenges to this freedom have also been often regarded as violations of what it is to be a human person.”[38]
A comprehensive way of understanding humanness is found in the expression of A.P.J. Abdul Kalam as  “In whatever field we work, be it science, technology, medicine, politics, policing, theology, religion or the judiciary, we have to remain in the service of the common man whose well-being is central to all human knowledge and endeavor.”[39] This conviction is the crux if religions earnestly seek to contribute to peace building.
Another important insight that will help peace building is that “We must all remember, very often we tend to forget that religion is an accident of birth except perhaps for that minuscule minority which might adopt it by choice. It is, therefore, essential that we realize that the purpose and objective of every religion is to foster peace, harmony, brotherhood, and not to quarrel needlessly.”[40] To establish peace each religious persons need to ask the genuine question, what could have been my standpoint had I been born in another religion than the one I am following.
If the above principles are not viewed seriously, religions need to concentrate on them. It is suggested that “What religion needs to do is to make the human beings realize their common humanity and strengthen the bonds of friendship and affection. If religions become a barrier in this mission of theirs they should have the courage to disown such fake religions and religious leaders, and work for the true religion where people will realize themselves as brothers and sisters with a common mission to work, and effect the liberation of man.”[41]
 A further insight in this direction is “Religions need to realize that they are only means; they are not an end in themselves. Human beings are not to be made slaves of religions; rather they must experience freedom in religion and freedom for religion.”[42] To put the matter into perspective, we need to realize that “Tolerance towards principles of other religions, respect of human rights and the rights of minorities must be the basis of peaceful coexistence.”[43]


9 Conclusions
            One of the prerequisites for any form of peace building efforts is freedom of religion which is often challenged by majority minority conflicts and its resulting gross injustice and inequality. Prevalence of injustice and inequality causes hostilities. At this juncture nonreligious bodies using religious sentiments for other than religious reasons add fuel to fire.
            The commitment of Indian constitution to establish justice and equality which are basic to peace and peaceful coexistence often come under the attack of misrepresentation and misinterpretation generating willful disturbances.
It is important that we need to follow the constitutional commitment to establish communal harmony and fraternity which help peace building. It is also our basic duty to contribute towards facilitating conducive atmosphere for the principles of constitution to function.
            Poverty which is the net product of injustice and inequality of all sorts is the main challenge for the peace initiatives. It needs to be counted by opposing the plans for any form of dominance; and allowing healing to take place.
            As freedom of religion a constitutional and human rights guarantee is a basic requirement for peace building, religions need to learn to live together by accepting and respecting each other. It can be possible if we approach the ultimate as mystery and consider our knowledge of it as partial. Once the source of superiority claims is properly understood dialogical activities among varying faith-traditions towards peace initiatives become meaningful.      
            In order to make peace initiatives relevant and positive our dialogical endeavors need to rest on human rights concern based upon the common humanness behind all the apparent differences and undertakings in a sustainable way.

Religion and Dialogue


[1] Rudolf C. Heredia, “Mission as Text in Context: Religious Conversions in ContemporaryIndia,” Vidyajyoti Journal of Theological Reflection 73/7 (July, 2009): p.6.
[2] Ibid., p.12.
[3]Varghese Manimala, Toward Mutual Fecundation and Fulfilment of Religions  (Delhi: MediaHouse and ISPCK), 2009, p.506.
[4] Rudolf C. Heredia, “Mission as Text in Context: Religious Conversions in ContemporaryIndia,” Vidyajyoti Journal of Theological Reflection  73/7 (July, 2009): p.6.
[5] Ibid., p.17.
[6] S.M. Michael svd, “Religious Violence in Orissa: issues, Reconciliation, Peace and
     Justice,” Mission Today xi/3 (July-September 2009): p. 258.
 [7] Ravi Tiwari, Reflections and Studies in Religion (Delhi: ISPCK, 2008), p.138.
[8] Ibid., p.129.
[9] Varghese Manimala, Toward Mutual Fecundation and Fulfilment of Religions  (Delhi: Media
House and ISPCK), 2009, p.527.
 [10]Ahmed Zewail., “Dialogue of Civilizations: Making History through a New World Vision,” in Towards a Culture of Harmony and Peace, edited by T.D. Singh (New Delhi & Kolkata:Delhi Peace Summit & Bhaktivedanta Institute, 2005), p. 24.
[11] Ibid., p. 25.
[12] Ibid., p. 36.
[13] Ibid., p. 24.
[14] Felix Wilfred, Religion and Culture for social Amity (Bangalore: ECC, 2006), p.15.
[15]S.M. Michael svd, “Religious Violence in Orissa: issues, Reconciliation, Peace and
            Justice,” Mission Today xi/3 (July-September 2009): pp.257-258.
[16]Swami Agnivesh., “Promotion of Peace through Social Justice,” in Towards a Culture of
Harmony and Peace, edited by T.D. Singh (New Delhi & Kolkata:Delhi Peace Summit & Bhaktivedanta Institute, 2005), p. 185.
[17] Paul F. Knitter, Introducing Theologies of Religions (Maryknoll, New York: Orbis
            Books, 2002) p.xi.
[18] Raimon Panikkar, “Introduction,” in Toward Mutual Fecundation and Fulfilment of
Religions, Manimala(Delhi: Media House and ISPCK), 2009, p.14.
[19] Paul F. Knitter, Introducing Theologies of Religions (Maryknoll, New York: Orbis
            Books, 2002) p.4.
[20] Ibid., p.13.
[21] Rudolf C. Heredia, “Mission as Text in Context: Religious Conversions in Contemporary
India,” Vidyajyoti Journal of Theological Reflection  73/7 (July, 2009): p.7.
[22]Jove Jim S. Aguas, “Religious Pluralism and Freedom of Religion,” Journal of Dharma 31/1 (January-March 2006): p.80.
[23] Warayuth Sriwarakuel, “Religious Freedom,” Journal of Dharma 31/1 (January-March
2006): p.49.
[24] Paul Tillich, Christianity and the Encounter of the World Religions (New York and London:
Columbia University Press, 1964) p. 97.
[25] Raimon Panikkar, “Introduction,” in Toward Mutual Fecundation and Fulfilment of
Religions,  Varghese Manimala(Delhi: Media House and ISPCK), 2009, p.14.

[26] Paul F. Knitter, Introducing Theologies of Religions (Maryknoll, New York: Orbis
            Books, 2002) p.7.
[27] John Hick, “The next Step beyond Dialogue,” in The Myth of Religious Superiority: Multifaith
Explorations of Religious Pluralism, edited by Paul F. Knitter (Maryknoll, New York: Orbis Books, 2005), p.12.
[28] Raimon Panikkar, “Introduction,” in Toward Mutual Fecundation and Fulfilment of
Religions,  Varghese Manimala(Delhi: Media House and ISPCK), 2009, p.14.
[29] Ibid., p.15.
[30] John Hick, “The next Step beyond Dialogue,” in The Myth of Religious Superiority: Multifaith
Explorations of Religious Pluralism, edited by Paul F. Knitter (Maryknoll, New York: Orbis Books, 2005), p.12.
[31] Ravi Tiwari, Reflections and Studies in Religion (Delhi: ISPCK, 2008), p.186.
[32] Varghese Manimala, Toward Mutual Fecundation and Fulfilment of Religions  (Delhi: Media
House and ISPCK), 2009, p.527.
[33] Ibid., p.515.
[34] Felix Wilfred, Religion and Culture for social Amity (Bangalore: ECC, 2006), p.16.
[35] Varghese Manimala, Toward Mutual Fecundation and Fulfilment of Religions  (Delhi: Media
House and ISPCK), 2009, p.522.
[36] Ibid., p.560.
[37] Rudolf C. Heredia, “Mission as Text in Context: Religious Conversions in Contemporary
India,” Vidyajyoti Journal of Theological Reflection  73/7 (July, 2009): p.6.
[38] William Sweet, “Freedom of Religion from Tolerated Practice to Human Right,” Journal of Dharma 31/1 (January-March 2006): p.28.
[39] A.P.J. Abdul Kalam, “The Joy of Human Life,” in Towards a Culture of Harmony and Peace,edited by T.D. Singh (New Delhi & Kolkata:Delhi Peace Summit & Bhaktivedanta Institute, 2005), pp.13-14.
[40] A.M. Ahmadi., “Towards a Global Society,” in Towards a Culture of Harmony and Peace,
edited by T.D. Singh (New Delhi & Kolkata:Delhi Peace Summit & Bhaktivedanta Institute, 2005), p. 18.
[41] Raimon Panikkar, “Introduction,” in Toward Mutual Fecundation and Fulfilment of
Religions,  Varghese Manimala(Delhi: Media House and ISPCK), 2009, p.18.
[42] Ibid., p.19.
[43] Ezekiel Issac Melekar., “Concept of Judaism,” in Towards a Culture of Harmony and
Peace, edited by T.D. Singh (New Delhi & Kolkata:Delhi Peace Summit & Bhaktivedanta Institute, 2005), p. 19.

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